When: in the course of human events

when: in the course of development—

it becomes necessary, for One People

(class distinctions have disappeared

and all production) has been concentrated

to dissolve the political bonds in the HANDS

which have connected them with another

of a vast association and to assume

(of the Whole Nation) the public Power

among the Powers (of the earth)

will lose its political character

the separate and equal station

to which the laws—political Power—

of nature properly so called (and of nature’s

God is merely the organized power)

entitle them of One Class, a decent respect

(for the opinions of mankind)

for opposing another Requires

if the proletariat (during its Contest

with the bourgeoisie) is Compelled

that they should declare by the Force

of circumstances the causes, to organize

itself (as a class) which Impel it

(by means of a revolution):

it makes itself, them, to


We, the ruling class, HOLD these and,

as such, truth-to-be, self-evident:

That: All Men sweeps away,

by Force are created,

equal the old conditions of production

That: they are Endowed. Then, it will,

along with these conditions,

by their creator, have Swept Away

(with certain unalienable rights the conditions)—

That:  among these are:

life for the existence,


and the pursuit of class Antagonisms

(of happiness)—

That: to secure these rights,

and of the classes generally,

governments are instituted

(among men) and will thereby

have abolished its own Supremacy,

deriving (their) “just” Powers

from the consent (as a class

of the governed)—

That: whenever in place of the old

(bourgeois society)

any form of government becomes

(with its classes, and

Destructive of these ends

and class Antagonisms),

it is the right of The People

To Alter—or—to Abolish.


We shall HAVE it

(an association) and—

to Institute new government

in which the free development

(laying its foundation of each

on such principles)

is the condition for free development—

and organizing its Powers

(in such form as to them shall seem

of all most likely)

to Effect their safety and

happiness (prudence), indeed,







Duane Vorhees
illustration Nick Victor

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